№ 2.

Dictated  (January  1903) by  Śiśrátoka,   28 years  old, of Tarajka (Bay  of
Patience).



Ainu text Word-for-word translation




Parátunnaj oxta Paratunnai in

Etókota ájnu formerly men

Poróno án.
many were.

Emújḱeta rajaxći. All died.
5
Okáḱe ta śine Afterwards one

máxneku, re woman name

Inanupírika, Inanupirika,

śiránkuri utara relatives people

Tura pate with only
10
omḗka. remained.

Ś́ine ćiśe One house

Pate ájnu
only people

Páxteno án. just sufficient for were.

Néte Tarájkaun Thereupon (of) Taraika
15
niśpa Inanupírika a rich man Inanupirika

sám rusúi. to marry wished.

Sám rusúiḱe. To marry wishing-

Inanupírika etúnne. Inanupirika would not.

Tarájkaun niśpa (Of) Taraika (the) rich man
20
kotánu oxta  village to

xośíbi hemaka. returned finished.

Inanupírika tani
(Of) Inanupirika now

utárhi ájnu the companions, (of) people

énko śuj a part again
25
ráj. Nax
died. Thus

án ani, was because,

táta ohórono
there long

Parátunnaj-ta Paratunnai in

Án kojákuś. 
to be (was) impossible.
30
Nax án rénkajne,
Thus was owing-to.

hej́ao japaxći, to the sea-shore, sailed

utárhi tura
companions with

iśínne japaxći, 
all sailed,

Morìruesán japaxći. (to) Moriruesan sailed.
35
Táta ćiśe There a house

karaxći, táta
(they) made, there

ohórono okajaxći. long lived.

Óxkajo ne ámpe: The males but:

ájnu kotan Ainu village
40
kájki án-kusu, [See note! 1, 35] being

ónne japan
thither sail

kusu néjḱe, if.

ájnu utara Ainu people

tumúḱeta iśínne among all (together)
45
okajánaxći kusu néjḱe (they) live if,

pìriká.
(it would be) well.

Táta ájnu There Ainu

sánḱeta okajanua, by the side of living

àn-nukára kusu néjḱe if (they) will see
50
ájnu an-né-kusu
men (they) are because

jáj kiśoro kara án descendants made

kusu néjḱe, if,

kána súj again

an-kotánhu their village
55
ónne, Parátunnaj to, Paratunnai

oxta paje ánte, to, having departed,

kána ikínne again once

kotan aśìriká village new-make

anki kusu néjḱe, they do if,
60
pìriká. (it will be) well.

Óxkajo náxkane Male(s) thus

pírika itax kí. well speak did.

Náx néva kájki, Thus nevertheless

Inanupírika ne ámpe, Inanupirika but
65
hośkí utara formerly people

sám rusúiḱe, to marry wishing,

etúnne, támb́e-ani would  not  (have  them),  this because of

ájnu úniḱe Ainu home

ónne ján to sail
70
etúnne. Inànupiriká would not. Inanupirika

ćáruhu hokànnasiká, mouth (speech) surpassing made,

ne rénkajne, nea
this therefore these

óxkajo rámuhu males the souls

emáćite, Karére opening, Karere
75
ónne, Vénnaj to, Vennai

ónne pajexći, to, departed,

táta ćiśe there house

karaxći, poróno made, much

inùnipexći, smoke-dried fish
80
pu śìś-kanné, sáxpe the store-houses  full (of) dried fish

eśìśkanné karaxći, full made;

hemakáte tani having finished now

matájta ḗ.
in winter ate.

Ukánru Ćámoki Ukanru (of) C'amoki
85
ájnu tá máxneku man, this woman

sám rusúi,
to marry wished,

Inanupírika etúnńe. Inanupirika would not.

Neja ájnu
This man

eoćiś, kotánu became angry, village
90
ónne oman. to went.

Matájta neja 
In winter this

Ukántu upun Ukantu snow-storm

júfḱe, poro
strong, great

śiri vén weather bad
95
ánte, Vénnaj being, Vennai

ónne  ĕ́. to came.

Vénnaj-un ájnu-utara Vennaian people

púhe, pú store house, store house

túntuhu mukar-ani 
pillars axe-with
100
tóxpa, púhe cut, the store-house

hora, emújḱe fell, all

ćivéndy hemáka, spoiled finished,

kotánu ónne village to

xośíbi, tani returned, now
105
ćiśe oxta house in

án hemaka. was finished.

Tani Vénnaj-oxta Now Vennai at

án utara,
being people,

śiri vén-ani, weather bad-being,
110
pu ónne store-house to

san kájki kojákuś. go impossible.

Tá ájnu utara These men

tòj ćiśe okajaxći, (in) earth houses lived.

Tòj ćiśe oxta earth house in
115
ib́e kájki  iśám; nourishment none;

pú tua (to)  store-house   go-to-seek-food

rusúi jaxka, wished although,

kojákuś. Van impossible. Ten

tó páxno days just,
120
ámpene śiri quite weather

vén. Néte bad. Thereupon

aśi śíri at last weather

pirika, pù
good, store-house

ónne sán; to went down;
125
sániḱe, ájnu when  (they)  went  down,  (that by some) man

múkara-áni pú axe-with store-house

túntu tóxpa pillars (are) cut

rúhe an, néte evident is, thereupon

pú hora;
store-house fell;
130
ib́éhe sumári the food foxes

nejaxka, hójnu and pine-martens

ná, neja ib́e 
also, this food

emújḱe ḗći, all ate,

póno-póno pate
a-very-little only
135
án. Ne ámpehe was. Therefore

tura makan, together went up,

útara é. people ate.

Pájgara tukàriḱetá Spring not-yet-arrived,

utara mava, people were hungry.
140
ib́e emújḱe iśam. food (at-) all not.

Tój ćiśè oxta Of earth house to

Ájnu iśínne, men together,

máxnek utara women

tama ná mukaxći, beads also put on neck
145
kosóndo ná míći, silk dresses also put on,

hemákate àjn
having finished people

iśínne uhòxḱekaćí all lay down together

rúhe an, ib́e visible, food

iśam ámpe, was not, the thing
150
śìn-án kusu àjn (was) certain, the people

iśínne ćepoma
all dying of hunger

utara eùkahoxḱé people lay down together,

néte ájn emújḱe after the people all

ráj. Néte Ćámokiun died.   Thereafter the Camokian
155
ájnu Ukántu man Ukantu

hóśki rámhu orova, the previous soul by,

máxnu rusúiḱe (to) marry wishing

kojákuś hene unable (to) but

kí anaxkájki,
do (so), nevertheless
160
Vénnaj oxta okaj Vennai in living

utara auvonnekare. people to visit (the younger brother) was commanded.

Náxa Ukántu Thus Ukantu's

nokan rámhu small soul

Vénnaj ónne Vennai to
165
ivónneka kusu oman. to visit went.

Omaniḱe neja
(He) having come, these

ájnu utara emújḱe people all

ćepómate rajaxći famished dead

rúhe án. Nukaráte apparently were.   Having seen
170
kotánu ónne xośíbi. home to returned.

Néte Tarájka utara Thereupon Taraika people

nùćí. Inanupírika heard. Inanupirika

śiránkuri utara relatives people

Tani okáḱeta now after
175
Vénnaj ónne ćib-áni Vennai to, boat by

pajexći, iśo went, bear-

kimójki kara epajexći. hunt make went.

Karer atúi orova Karer sea from

pajexći, nea Vénnaj
went, this Vennai
180
oxta pajexći. to went.

Tu únźi Two hearths

ó ćiśe,
bearing house,

poro ćiśe large house

Né rúhe án. visible was.
185
Horá-kiḱe ćiśe Fall did when, house

amani tój beams earth

káta ukòśiturupá, upon, were stretched one upon other

poro súhećin great iron pots

húxkara túj śáta
(of) the forest (in) the interior near
190
amáxći rúhe án. put visible were.

Táha nejaxka This also

ájnu utara nukaraxći. Ainu people have seen.

Náxkane ućáśkoma án. Thus tradition is.

Nax án rénkajne, Thus (it) was therefore: 
195
máxneku ne ámpe (of) woman. [See note 1. 154]

itákihi ne ámpe (to the) speaking

óxkajo erámu man (his) soul

śikiru kuni, anetúnne; give up that, (it) is-not-right

máxneku ita kohekiru (of)   woman   to   the   speaking give-up
200
ájnu ne ámpe
man

húśko orovano
old time from

ájnu ejajtúparepè (for) man dangerous thing

tánè. Né rénkajne
that is. This therefore

tani án ćáća now existing old men
205
utara, pó-koro people, children having

utara, né-kusu néjḱe, people, are if,

ećákaśno kara.
(they) instruct make.


Literary translation.

    There were many people of old in Paratunnai, but they all came to die. so that at last there only remained one woman, named Inanupirika, with her relations: only enough persons for a single dwelling.

Then a wealthy man of Taraika desired to wed Inanupirika; he desired to wed her, but she would not have him: and this rich man of Taraika finally returned to bis village. Now again   the  people   who   were with Inanupirika carne to die,  one  after  another.   Arid therefore,   it   was   not  possible to dwell  there   in  Paratunnai   any longer.   So they went to the sea-shore,  and  sailed away; away they sailed, the whole company. They sailed to Moriruesan, where they built a house, and lived there a long time.   But  the men said: "There are Ainu villages; if we sail thither and live all together amongst the Ainu folks, it will be well. There, living beside our Ainu people, we  may   once   more behold our village and - since men are there, - have offspring, and go away again, to Paratunnai and rebuild our village: and it will be well". Thus rightly   spoke   the   men.   But Inanupirika,  who had formerly refused those that would have wedded her, was against sailing towards her Ainu home. And Inanupirika prevailed in speech against  them.   Wherefore  the  men,   making  up their minds, departed   for   Karere   and  Vennai, where they built a house, a storehouse that they filled up with smoked fish, which having  accomplished,    they now might eat their food in winter quarters.   But   the man   Ukantu of Camoki   was fain to wed that woman   Inanupirika;   and   she  refused  him.   He  waxed wroth, and went home to his village.  And this man Ukantu, when there was a great snowstorm and the weather was bad in winter, came to Vennai; with his axe did he hew down the pillars of the storehouse of the men of Vennai, and making it fall, wrecked it utterly. And then he returned home to his village and abode there. But the people who dwelt in Vennai could not go to their storehouse, for the weather was too bad; and they lived in houses dug in the earth, wherein there was no food; and though they would fain have gone to the storehouse to seek food, it was impossible. For ten days long, the weather was exceeding bad. When at last it became fair weather, they went down to the storehouse. When they got there, they saw plainly that some man had with an axe hewn down the storehouse pillars, so that it had fallen. All the food there had been devoured by foxes and pine-martens; only a very little remained. And therefore the people went together, and ate it up. But spring not having yet arrived, they soon were hungry, and there was no food at all for them now. The men went together to the earth house; the women, adorning themselves as if already dead, put beads round their necks and arrayed themselves in silken robes. This done, they all lay down together. Together they all lay down, no food was in sight, they knew for sure that they were all to starve to death. After which every one of them died. Thereafter Ukantu, the man of Camoki, who had desired to wed Inanupirika but could not do so, was nevertheless commanded by his elder brother to visit the dwellers in Vennai. Thus went Ukantu's younger brother to visit Vennai: where he found that all the people had died, evidently of hunger. He saw, and returned home. Then the men of Taraika, the kindred of Inanupirika, heard; and now they went by boat to Vennai, and hunted bears there. They came from the sea of Karere, they came to Vennai. There they saw the house that had two hearths; it had fallen, the beams thereof were scattered one upon the other on the ground. Within they saw the great iron pots, visible from the interior of the adjoining forest. This also did the Ainus see, and thus
goes the tradition. And as this was so, we see that it is not right that men should give up their souls to the discourse of women; to yield to the discourse of women has been a dangerous thing from olden times. And therefore do the old men now living tell this for instruction of their children.

Remarks to Nr. 2.

    This tale is one of the   first that I wrote in Saghalien. The teller was a young man, with a good memory and great ambition to be known as a good speaker. He dictated  many traditions to me. which he had heard from his uncle, a very wise and much esteemed Ainu from Taraika, who had died one year before my visit to the Ainu country. However, this narrator's diction is not so pure as that  of the first  tale.  It is more broken, less periodical than the others, and shows an intention to make  things easy for a foreign hearer little acquainted with the Ainu language (as I myself then was), by avoiding idiomatic phrases and difficult words. Hence there arises at times a considerable degree of want of connectednesg in the tale itself and its meaning; at others it is  only the style that is at fault. He told me this tale when asked whether the Ainus lived formerly in the northern part of Saghalien. The occurence related took  place about   150 years ago.

1. Paratunnaj, the name   of an   ancient   village   on the shore of the Bay of Patience.   The   word   is   comp  of para, 'broad' + tu, 'two' + naj, 'a river'.
2. etokota, comp. of etoko, see 1. 102 + ta, contr. from oxta, see 1. 2.
    ajnu, 'man, men, people'; also the name of the race.
7. Inanupirika, comp.of  Inanu or nanu, 'a face' + pirika, see 1. 355.
8. śirankuri is a word altered from the original form śiramkore, which is still used in Yeso: comp, of śi, 'oneself + ram, 'the soul' + kore, 'to give'. It means 'a relative and also a good friend'.
14. Тarajkaun, comp. of Таrajkа, the name of a village still existing near the great lake of Таrajkа, near the Bay of Patience, + un, see 1. 177.
17. rusuiḱe, comp.of  rusui, 'to  wish' + iḱe, see 1. 170.
21. hеmakа, 'to finish'; is used sometimes after othi verbs in order to indicate more clearly that the act in question is ended.
23. utarhi, see 1. 357.
26. ani, a particle placed after nouns, used to denote the instrument with which the action is done; placed after the verbs, it gives a causal   meaning to the proposition, anma}' be translated by 'because'; it thus changes the verb inl a participle, or rather a causal gerund.
27. tata, comp. of  ta, 'this'+ ta, cf. 1. 2.
30. renkajne, a causative postposition, derived from renka 'the favour, kindness, decision' + ine or hinе, see 1. 34; has a meaning akin to ḱeraj kusu, see 1. 392.
31. hejao, comp. of  he, see 1. 82 + , 'the land' + о, 'to sail'.
33. japaxći, see 1. 208.
34. Moriruesan, the name of a place on the Bay of Patience to the north of Taraika; comp. of  , 'little' + ri, 'high' + ru, 'a way' + esan or san, 'to go down the sea shore'. o:down a riverbank.
38. oxkajo, a sing. used instead of the pl. form oxkajo utara. From the next phrases it is clear that several males are spoken of.
40. an kusu, see 1. 60.
41. onne, see 1. 343.
42. kusu nejḱe, see 1. 400.
44. tumuḱeta, see 1. 5.
45. okajanaxći, see 1. 3 and 39.
46. pirika. This word  has usually the tonic accent on the first syllable:pírika; but forming by itself a  whole member of the proposition meaning, 'it would be well', this word has two tonic accents: on the first and on the last syllables.
48. sanḱeta or samaḱeta, 'beside'.
        okajanua, see 1. 47.
49. annukara, cf. 1. 15.
51. jajkiśoro, 'descendants', comp. of  jaj, 'oneself + kiś instead of ḱeś, 'end' + oro, 'from'.
53. see 1. 428.
54. see 1. 25.
58. aśirika, comp. of  aśiri, 'new' + ka, contr. from kara, 'to do'.
67. tamb́e, comp. of  tam or tan or ta, 'this' + b́e or pe, 'a thing'; for ani see 28.
68. uniḱe, or uni, 'home, the place where people live.
71. hоkannaśika, comp. of  ho, see 1. 82. hаnnа, 'upper' + śi, 'oneself + ka, see 58. meaning 'to  surpass  by  the mouth, i. e. to get the better in talking'.
72. ne or neа, 'that'; renkajne, see 30.
74. Karere, the name of a part of the sea  of  Okhotsk, to the North of the cape of Patience.
75. Vennaj,  the name of a river that runs into the sea of Karere, and of a village built   there by   the   family mentioned. The word is comp. of.  ven, 'bad' + naj, 'a river'.
79. inuniṕexći, comp. of  inun, 'to smoke-dry' + iṕe or ib́e, 'to eat'+ xći; the whole means, 'to prepare smoke-dried fish'.
80. śiśkanne, 'full', cf. below , 81; kanne, see 1. 14.
      saxpe
comp. of sax, 'the summer' + pe
83. ē, or ib́e, 'to eat', cf. 96.
84. Ukanru,  a proper name.
Ćamokiun; for un see 1. I77; Ćamoki, the name of a village on the same coast, but more to the north. Now the Grhilyaks live in that village, they are the offspring of mixed marriages between the two races. The Ghilyaks call the place Tśamg-vo (vo means 'village').
89. eoćiś or oćiś, 'to be angry'; the root is ćiś, 'to weep'.
99. tuntuhu, 'a pillar'; the store-houses of the Ainus are built on pillars.
99. mukar ani, instead of mukara, 'an axe' + ani, see 26.
113. toj ćiśe, contr. from toj ćiśe oxta, The Ainus of Saghalien, mostly those living on the colder Eastern shore, used to make earthen and partly underground houses for winter in the forest at a little distance from their summer dwellings, and from the store-houses. When in Saghalien, I found these winter earthen dwellings only in the four northern villages. In many others they spend the winter in huts built on the Russian pattern.
116. tuа, a special word, used only in connection with pu; it means 'to go for food to the store-house'.
131–132. nejaxka… nа…, 'also  (both)... also (and)...
134. pono-pono, is the repetition of pono, comp. of pon, 'little' + , an adverbial particle. The duplication of such words gives an intensified meaning.
137.  ē instead of eći; sing. instead of pl.
143. maxnek utara, instead of
maxneku utara.
144. tama, 'beads', a Japanese word.
         mukaxći or muftexći, 'they hung', suspended from the neck or schoulder.
145. Kosondo, the name of Japanese or Manchurian brocade, which the Ainus liked to purchase and prized very highly. The word was afterwards extended to any silk dress, or silk material. It is a Japanese word kosode. 'a cloak without sleeves, made of brocade'. Such precious dresses are often put on the dead, as a funeral garment.  Here the women put on beads and silk dresses, and prepared themselves for  death, which was inevitable.
145. mići, pl. of mi, 'to put on a dress'.
146. ajn, with elided u.
147. uhoxḱekaći, is a form of the 3rd person pi. of hохḱе; cf. 1. 316.
150. śin-an kusu, for śino, 'truly' + an kusu, 'being'.
151. ćepoma, comp. of  ćep, 'a fish' + oma, 'to lay'; it has two synonyms: ćex noje (a fish, to twist), and ćex rajki (a fish, to kill). See similar descriptive expressions 1. 24.
152. eukahoxḱe, cf. above. 147.
154. raj, sing. instead of the pl. form rajaxći.
156. hośki ramhu, literally,  'the previous soul', is a descriptive expression for the 'elder brother', a younger brother is called nokan ramhu, 'a small soul'. see 163.
157. maxnu, 'to take a wife'; comp. of  max or maći, + nu. Also: hоkonu, 'to take a husband'; ponu, 'to bring into the world a child'; nu generally signifies, 'to hear',  but whether this is its meaning in   these  three  compounds, I am unable to say.
159. ki, 'did'. This word is sometimes used as an augmentative affix to a verb.
161. auvonnekare, comp. of au (instead of an, cf. 1. 5, n before v = u) + vonneka. 'to visit' + re, see 1. 258.
162. naxa for nax, 'so'.
163. see 156.
165. ivonneka, comp. of  i, acc. of pers. pronoun, first and third persons, sing, and pl., here it means 'them' + vonneka, see 161.
168. ćepomate, a participle of ćepoma, see 151.
207. iśo, 'a bear'; iśon, 'one lucky in hunting'.
177. kimojki, comp.of kim, which is a root used in compounds, and means 'a mountain-forest'.
181. unźi or unći, 'a fire, a hearth'. The large houses of the Ainus have two hearths, placed in the middle of the house. The smoke goes out by the aperture in the roof. The fire-place is a sort of large wooden box or framework, about six feet square and one high, almost filled with beaten earth: the logs are piled up in the centre upon the earth.
186. amani, comp. of ama, 'to put on' + ni, 'a tree'.
187. ukośiturupa, comp.of  uko + śi + turupa, plur. form of turu, or turi, 'to stretch out'.
188. suhećin, comp. of su,  'a pot of iron', which the Ainus received from Japan or Manchuria, + he, + ćin, one of the plural signs for nouns, see 1. 99.
189. huxkara, 'a grove, a little forest of any trees with needle-shaped leaves;   derived   from  hux or huf; huftе – 'the leaves or branches of coniferous trees'.
       tuj śata, comp. of tuj, 'the inside of anything';+ śata or sata or samata, see 48.       
190. The Ainus make their burial grounds close to the grove that is next their houses. There also, after the  burial, they lay certain objects which are supposed to be used by the dead in the other world. In this case the inhabitants ol Vennaj also placed pots for themselves, making  preparations for their own impending death.
196. itakihi, for itak; the addition of hi (see 1. 25) produces a verbal substantive.
197–198. eramu śikiru instead of ramu eśikiru; ē expressing the character of an object.
198. kuni, 'that' (conjunction)   is placed at  the end of the proposition.
199. kohekiru, comp. of  ko + + kiru, 'to turn over'.
202. ejajtuparepe, comp. of  е + jaj + tupa, 'to change places' + re + . It may be that, as the Ainu canoes are very long and narrow,  and it is  dangerous to  change  places in them, this is the origin of the word.
203. tane, comp.of  ,  'this' + , 'to be, is'.
204. ćaća, comp. of ći aća,  'my (or his, her) uncle'; ćaća is used to designate any old man.
207. ećakaśno, comp.of  е + ća, 'the mouth'+ kaś or kaśi, 'upper, upon' + .